Swine Production Glossary

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

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Barrow castrated male swine
Boar uncastrated male swine
Boar effect boar exposure to gilts causes earlier onset of puberty with some synchronization
Boar power boar use efficiency
Breeding Herd includes boars and females in stages of gestation, breeding, and farrowing
Breeding Soundness Evaluation (male) assessment of libido, mating ability, and capacity to produce and ejaculate normal semen
Bulbourethral glands located at ischiatic arch under penile crura and secrete the tick gel portion of the ejaculate

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Cervix 10 to 20cm long with transverse folds which are continuous with the vaginal mucous membrane. Transverse folds form a "corkscrew."
Continuous farrowing sows (and gilts) grouped in weekly batches, use all in/all out, practiced by larger operations (see periodic farrowing)

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Ductus deferens lacks an ampulla, empties directly into pelvic urethra at seminal colliculus; microscopically, glandular tissue is present in ampullary area
Dystocia difficulty giving birth

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Epididymus tail: dorsal/ head: ventral/ body: cranial + medial making it difficult to palpate due to location
Estrus readiness to mate
Evaporative cooling cooling of the body by loss of the heat required to convert water liquid to vapor

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Farrow to finish operation
Farrowing or Feeder pig operation most intensive breeding system; producer has no grow/finish floor and sells feeder pigs
Feed conversion efficiency
Feeder pig operation breeder sells his grower pigs to a finishing operation to grow them out to market weight
Finisher pig
Finishing operation buys feeder pigs and feeds them to 240 to 250 lbs
Flushing increasing energy intake 10 to 14 days prior to estrus to increase number of ova ovulated
Foster practice of placing piglets from mothers with too many piglets to feed adequately to mathers with extra udder space, should occur in first few days after birth

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Gilt young female swine, up to and including primiparous (1st litter) females; about 6 mos old and 200 to 220lbs
Grower pig pig being grown out to market weight, usually takes about 16 weeks

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Hand mating boar is brought to individual female for servicing
Hog generic term, usually applied to growing swine

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Labia Female's external lips of the vulva, characteristically become hyperemic and swollen at estrus (or under the influence of exogenous estrogen.)
Limit Feeding Feeding strategy in which pigs are fed a specific amount of food in a time period. Contrast with free-feeding for a specific time period.
Lochia

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Market weight 240 to 250 lbs
Mating breeding a sow or gilt after the onset of estrus and before ovulation, may include repeated servicings and servicings by multiple boars and still be considered one mating
Meat breeds used in boar lines in cross-breeding schemes; include: Hampshire, Duroc, Poland China, and Pietrain (pronounced Peé-a-trin)
Mother Breeds used in maternal lines in coss-breeding schemes; include: Yorkshire, English Large White, Landrace, and Chester White

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Non-productive Sow Days days a sow is not lactating or gestating

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Ovaries oval shape, mulberry-like appearance due to the multiple follicles/CL's present

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Parturition giving birth; specific term for swine is "farrowing"
Pen mating boar is placed with group of sows for servicing (see hand mating and ai)
Penis fibro-elastic with no glans penis; the distal 5-6cm has a counter-clockwise coil which "locks" into the cervix of the female; the urethral orifice is a small slit 1 cm from the distal end of the penis; the sigmoid flexure is located cranial to the scrotum
Periodic farrowing twice per year farrowing practiced by smaller operations (see continuous farrowing)
Pig generic term, usually applied to immature swine
Pig constipation pig production exceeds the capabilities of the facility
Polyestrous the quality of
Pork producer integrated swine producer and meat packer
Prepuce a dorsal prepucial diverticulum is present; has been incriminated in infectious processes (but without proof)
Prostate disseminate portion surrounds urethra, the body lies ventral to the vesicular glands
Puberty time at which first estrus occurs in females, usually at 6 mos of age, but depends on breed, environment and seasom of the year. Puberty is more gradual in boars progressing over 5 to 18 mos of age from onset to full maturity.

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Segregated early weaning SEW, removal of pigs from mother at 10 to 4 days of age in order to facilitate disease management
Service deposition of semen into the cervix of a sow or gilt. may be by "natural" boar or artificial insemination
Shoat archaic term, usually applied to growing swine
Sow adult female swine
Standing Heat when a sow or gilt is ready to be bred, she will assume a rigid stance and maintain it throughout the servicing

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Teats heritable trait; the number and spacing of teats on boar and sow are important
Testes large and symmetrical; orientation is long axis vertical/oblique

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Uterus The uterine horns are short and convoluted when non-pregnant and up to 1.8 m (6ft) in length during pregnancy. The uterine body is short, about 5cm long.

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Vagina The degree of cornification of the epithelium changes with the cycle and pregnancy status, but it is not as dramatic as in the bitch, and thus not reliable for determining stage of cycle.
Vesicular glands large,paired lobulated glands that occupy the major portion of the pelvic inlet and empty into the pelvic urethra at seminal colliculus

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Weaner pig from weaning up to about 40 lbs

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Copyright ©1997 by the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine
Faculty: Dr. Paul Pitcher
Student: Sandra Springer,'99