Glossary of Orthopaedic Terms

Appendix A


 

ABAXIAL. Lying away from the axis of the body

ABDUCTION. The withdrawal of a part from the axis of the body

ADDUCTION. The act of drawing toward the axis of the body

ALLOGRAFT. Bone transferred between genetically dissimilar members of the same species

ANKYLOSIS. Abnormal immobility and consolidation of a joint

ANTEVERSION. Turning cranial or inclining cranial, usually referring to a femoral head and neck angulation

ANTIPHLOGISTIC. Preventing or relieving inflammation

APLASIA. Incomplete or defective development of tissue

APOPHYSIS. A bony process or outgrowth that has not had an independent center of ossification

ARTHROCENTESIS. Incision into a joint; puncture with a needle

ARTHRODESIS. The surgical fixation of a joint by fusion of the joint surfaces

ARTHROPLASTY. Plastic surgery of a joint or of joints; formation of movable joints

ARTHROSIS. Degenerative disease of a joint

ARTHROTOMY. Surgical incision of a joint

ARTICULATION. A joint; the place of union or junction between two or more bones

ATAXIA. Failure of muscular coordination; irregularity of muscular action

ATROPHY. A wasting away or diminution in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or part

AUTOGRAFT. Bone transferred from one site to another in the same animal

AVULSION. A tearing away

AXIAL. Relating to the central part of the body

CALLUS. The bony material that bridges fractured bone fragments

CANNULATE. To place a tube into a structure

CAPSULORRHAPHY. Suture of a tear or laceration in a joint capsule; usually referring to prevention of joint dislocation

CAPSULOTOMY. Incision through a capsule; joint capsule

CERCLAGE. An encircling device

CHONDROPLASTY. Reparative or plastic surgery of cartilage

CIRCUMDUCTION. The active or passive circular movement of a limb

CLONUS. Spasm in which rigidity and relaxation alternate in rapid succession

CLOSED FRACTURE. Loss of continuity of a bone without contact of the bone with the outside environment

COAPTATION. A joining or fitting together of two surfaces; fitting of fracture ends

COMMINUTION. Breaking into a number of small fragments

CONGENITAL. Existing at or before birth

COXA. Referring to the hip or hip joint

CREPITUS. Bony crepitus, the crackling sound produced by the rubbing together of fragments of fractured bone; joint crepitus, the grating sensation caused by the rubbing together of the dry synovial surfaces of joints

CUNEIFORM. Wedge-shaped

DIAPHYSIS. The shaft of a long bone

DIPLEGIA. Paralysis affecting like parts on both sides of the body

DISLOCATION. The displacement of any part, more especially of a bone

DORSIFLEXION. Flexion or bending upward of the paw or toes

DRAWER. Abnormal cranial or caudal movement at the knee

DYSPLASIA. Abnormality of development

ELECTROLYSIS. Decomposition of body tissues (bone) by means of electricity

ENDOSTEUM. Internal periosteum; the membrane lining the medullary cavity

EPIPHYSEOLYSIS. Separation of an epiphysis from its bone

EPIPHYSIODESIS. Premature union of an epiphysis with the diaphysis

EPIPHYSIS. A piece of bone separated from a long bone in early life by cartilage, but later becoming a part of the larger bone; the end of a long bone

EVERSION. A turning outward or inside out

EXTENSION. A movement that brings the members of the limb toward 180°

EXTERNAL ROTATION. Eversion

FATIGUE. Material failure caused by cyclic motion

FENESTRATION. To make openings or windows into an anatomical structure

FIBRILLATION. A fibrillar, striated pattern seen on cartilage undergoing early degenerative change

FLACCID. Weak, lax, soft

FLEXION. The act of bending from a large angle to a lesser angle

FRACTURE. The breaking of a part, especially of a bone; loss of continuity of bone

GENU. The knee: genu varus, bowleg deformity; genu valgus, knock-knee deformity

HEMATOMA. Soft tissue swelling filled with blood

HEMIPLEGIA. Paralysis of one side of the body

HYPEREMIA. Excess of blood (circulation) in any part of the body

HYPEREXTENSION. Extreme or excessive extension; greater than 180°

HYPERTROPHY. The enlargement or overgrowth of an organ or part due to an increase in size of its constituent cells

IMBRICATE. Operative overlapping of layers of tissue; a tightening procedure

IMPLANT. To insert or graft

INTERNAL ROTATION. Inversion

INVERSION. A turning inward, inside out, upside down, or other reversal of the normal relation of a part

INVOLUCRUM. A covering or sheath, such as contains the sequestrum of a necrosed bone; localized overgrowth or hypertrophy of bone in response to infection

ISCHEMIA. Local and temporary deficiency of blood, due chiefly to the contraction of a blood vessel

ISOGRAFT. Bone transferred between animals who are identical in histocompatibility antigens (litter mates)

KYPHOSIS. Humpback; abnormal curvature and dorsal prominence of the vertebral column

LORDOSIS. Curvature of the spinal column with a ventral convexity

MALUNION. Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in faulty position

MENISCECTOMY. Excision of a meniscus from a joint

METAPHYSIS. The flared area of junction of the epiphysis with the diaphysis of a long bone

METAPLASIA. The change in the type of adult cells in a tissue to a form that is abnormal for that tissue

METASTASIS. The shifting or spreading of a disease to other parts of the body

MONOARTICULAR. Pertaining to a single joint

MONOPLEGIA. Paralysis of a single part

MYELOSCLEROSIS. Increased density of cancellous bone while cortical bone remains normal

NONUNION. Failure of the ends of a fractured bone to unite; false union; pseudarthrosis

NORMOGRADE. Pin placement that begins at a bone end and exits the fracture site

OBLIQUE. Slanting away from horizontal or perpendicular

OPEN FRACTURE. Loss of continuity of bone with exposure to the outside environment ("compound" fracture)

OSTECTOMY. The excision of a bone or a portion of bone

OSTEOARTHRITIS. Inflammation of the articular components of a bone

OSTEOCLASIS. The surgical or manual fracture or refracture of bones

OSTEOLYSIS. A localized area of osteoporosis

OSTEOMA. A tumor composed of bone tissue and usually developing on a bone

OSTEOMALACIA. Faulty mineralization of available osteoid, which may be soft or bend

OSTEOPETROSIS. Increased bone density resulting from prenatal fetal bone that has not converted to

cancellous bone

OSTEOPOROSIS. Bone tissue that is normally mineralized but contains too little mass

OSTEOSCLEROSIS. Abnormal hardening or increased density of bone (eburnation)

OSTEOTOME. A knife, used for cutting bone, in which both sides of the cutting edge are beveled

OSTEOTOMY. The surgical cutting of a bone

PALMAR. Referring to the walking surface of the forepaw; volar

PALSY. Paralysis

PARALYSIS. Loss of voluntary movement in a muscle or muscle group; loss of function (paresis)

PARAPATELLAR. Alongside or near the patella

PARAPLEGIA. Paralysis of the hindlegs and caudal part of the body, both motion and sensation being affected

PERINEURIUM. The sheath surrounding a bundle of nerve fibers in a peripheral nerve

PERIOSTEUM. The tough fibrous membrane surrounding a bone

PES. Referring to the foot or paw

PIEZOELECTRIC. Electric current generated by pressure upon certain bony crystals

PLANTAR. Referring to the walking surface of the hindpaw; volar

POLYARTICULAR. Pertaining to two or more joints

POLYDACTYLISM. The occurrence of more than the usual number of toes

PRONATION. The act of turning the forepaw outward from the body

PROSTHESIS. An artificial replacement for body parts that may be missing or defective

PSEUDARTHROSIS. A false joint, as that sometimes seen following a fracture or in failure of an arthrodesis or fusion

QUADRIPLEGIA. Paralysis of all four limbs

REAM. To widen an opening; to open the medullary canal

RECURVATUM. A backward bending; a curvature backward

REDUCTION. The correction of a fracture or luxation

RESECTION. Excision of a considerable portion of an organ; especially excision of the ends of bones and other structures forming a joint

RETROGRADE. Pin placement that begins at the fracture site and exits a bone end

ROTATION. The process of turning around an axis

SAUCERIZATION. Excision of tissue (bone) to form a shallow depression

SCOLIOSIS Abnormal curvature of the vertebral column, a lateral curvature

SEOUESTRUM. A piece of dead bone that has become separated from the sound bone during the process of necrosis

SEROMA. Soft swelling, filled with serum

SHEAR. The distortion of a body by two oppositely directed parallel forces

SPASTIC. Of the nature of or characterized by spasms or spasticity

SPICA. A figure-of-eight bandage

SPONDYLITIS. Inflammation of one or more vertebrae

SPONDYLOLISTHESIS. Ventral subluxation of one vertebral body referable to the next vertebral body

SPONDYLOLYSIS. A dissolution of the body of a vertebra

STRAIN. The change in shape that a body undergoes when acted upon by an external force

STRESS. The resisting force occurring in a body as a result of an externally applied force

SUBLUXATION. An incomplete or partial dislocation

SUPINATION. A turning of the forepaw inward toward the body

SYNCHONDROSIS. The union of bones by means of fibrous or elastic cartilage

SYNDACTYLISM. The condition in which two or more toes are more or less completely grown together or adherent

SYNDESMOSIS. Artificial ankylosis by fibrous connection

SYNOSTOSIS. The union of adjacent bones by means of osseous union of bones that are normally separate

SYNOVECTOMY. Excision of a part or all of the synovial membranes

SYNOVIAL FLUID. A viscid fluid containing synovin, or mucin, and a small proportion of mineral salts. It is transparent and alkaline and resembles the white of an egg. Secreted by the synovial membrane, it is contained in joint cavities, bursae, and tendon sheaths

TENODESIS. Tendon fixation; suturing of the end of a tendon to bone

TENOLYSIS. Separation of a tendon from its tendon sheath

TENORRHAPHY. The union of a divided tendon by a suture

TENOTOMY. Surgical division of a tendon to correct deformity

TRANSPLANT. To transfer tissue from one part to another

TREPHINE. A cylindrical saw

VALGUS. Bent inward; toward the midline of the body distal to joint described

VARUS. Bent inward; toward the midline of the body distal to joint described

VOLAR. Referring to the walking surface of the paw

XENOGRAFT. Bone transferred between members of different species