Equine Normal Measurements
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Normal Left Ventricular Measurements

Normal right parasternal window views

Measurements

Mean (cm)     +/- SD

Reference#
Interventricular septum in diastole (IVSd) 3.1+/- 0.6, 3.0 +/- 0.4 1, 2
Interventricular septum in systole (IVSs) 4.8+/- 0.7, 4.6+/- 0.6 1, 2
Left ventricular free wall in diastole (FWd) 2.4 +/- 0.3 2
Left ventricular free wall in systole (FWs) 4.0 +/- 0.9 2
Left ventricle in diastole (LVd) 11.9 +/- 0.7, 11.9 +/- 0.8, 11.1 +/- 1.3, 9.3 +/- 0.3 1, 2, 3, 4
Left ventricle in systole (LVs) 7.4 +/- 0.7, 7.5 +/-0.6, 6.1 +/- 0.9, 5.7 +/- 0.2 1, 2, 3, 4
Fractional shortening 38.8 +/- 4.6, 44.1 +/- 6.4, 38.6 +/- 1.6 1, 2, 4
Normal left parasternal window views
Right ventricular free wall in diastole (RFWd) 1.4+/-0.2 3
Left ventricle in diastole (LVd) 12.3 +/- 0.7 3
Left ventricle in systole (LVs) 7.7 +/-0.5 3
Fractional shortening (FS) 37.0+/-3.9 3

(LVd) - (LVs) / (LVd) * 100 = Fractional shortening

Normal Left Atrial Measurements

Normal right parasternal echo measurements

Measurements

Mean (cm) +/- SD

Reference#
Aortic root in diastole (ARd) 8.5 +/- 0.5, 8.0 +/- 0.5, 7.3 +/- 0.8, 7.7 +/- 0.2

1, 2, 3, 4

Left atrial appendage in systole (LAD) < ARd  

Normal left parasternal window views

LA 2D < 13.5  

Normal Right Ventricular Measurements

Normal right parasternal echo measurements

Measurements

Mean (cm) +/- SD

Reference#

Right ventricle in diastole (RVd) 3.8 +/-0.9, 3.9 +/- 0.6 1, 2
Right ventricle in systole (RVs) 2.7 +/- 1.0 2

Reference #  
1

Lescure F, Tamzali Y. Valeurs de reference en echocardiographie T M chez le cheval de sport. Revue Med Vet 1984;135:405-418.

2

Long KJ, Bonagura JD, Darke PG: Standardised imaging technique for guided M-mode and Doppler echocardiography in the horse. Equine Vet J 1992;24:226-235.

3 Patteson MW, Gibbs C, Wotton PR, Cripps PJ. Echocardiographic measurements of cardiac dimensions and indices of cardiac function in normal adult Thoroughbred horses. Equine Vet J 1995; Suppl 19:18-27.
4 Pipers FS, Hamlin RL. Echocardiography in the horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1977;170:815-819.