This site is designed to complement core cardiology (7001), the large animal internal medicine elective (7502) as well as clinical electives. The integration of the cardiac examination and auscultation findings with the real-time echocardiographic examination, electrocardiographic examination and post mortem findings, where appropriate, will provide the student with the complete picture of the large animal normal heart and the common pathology found in large animals. 

Table of Contents

Echocardiography Tutorial
Small Animal Cardiology
ECG Tutorial
Equine Cases
Equine & Bovine Normals
Bovine Cases


Copyright 1999 University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Virginia Reef
Student: Jeff Horst  V'02
Date this page was last updated: February 20, 2004