- Rotate the transducer 90° so that the scan plane marker is cranial and
slightly ventral (4 o'clock)
- Left ventricular view
-Aim slightly ventrally to include the cardiac apex and papillary muscles.
Should image the right ventricle (RV), left ventricle (LV), interventricular septum
(IVS), the dorsal aspects of the papillary muscles and the left ventricular free wall
- M-Mode view of left ventricle
-Diameter of RV (See example)
-Diameter of LV (Left ventricular internal diameter (LVID) at end diastole
(LVIDd) and peak systole (LVIDs)) (See example)
-Thickness of IVS measured at
end diastole and peak systole (See example)
-Thickness of the LV free wall (LVFW) measured at
end diastole and peak systole
-End diastole at Q wave
-Peak systole at peak downward deflection of interventricular septum
-Fractional shortening (FS) calculated by subtracting LVIDs from LVIDd, dividing
this number by LVIDd and then multiplying this number by 100.
- Mitral valve view
-Aim straight across to visualize chordae tendineae and mitral valve (MV).
Should image the right ventricle (RV), interventricular septum (IVS), left
ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), mitral valve (MV), and the left ventricular free wall
- M-mode view of mitral valve
-Septum to E point of MV (SEP) is indication of size of the LVOT
-Normally <1 cm
-Measured from IVS to peak opening of MV in early diastole
- Aortic valve view
-Aim dorsally and slightly clockwise for AV
Should image the tricuspid valve (TV), aortic root (AR) with the
aortic valve (AV) within, left atrium (LA), and left atrial appendage (LAA).
- M-mode view of aorta
-AR diameter measured at end diastole at onset of Q wave
-LA appendage measured in systole at its widest internal diameter
-Ejection time measured from opening to closing of AV (See example)
Click here to see a diagram.
Copyright © 1999 University of
Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Virginia Reef
Student: Jeff Horst V'02
Date this page was last updated: August 01, 2000