Muscles of the Equine Pelvic Limb
Muscle Origin Insertion Innervation Action
Tensor fasciae latae m. Coxal Tuber Patella, Lateral Patellar Ligament and Cranial Border of Tibia (with fascia lata)
&
Third Trochanter of Femur (with spf. gluteal m.)
Cranial Gluteal n. Flexes hip

Advances limb

Extends stifle

Tenses the fascia lata

Superficial Gluteal m. Coxal Tuber Fascia Lata
&
Third Trochanter of Femur
Cranial Gluteal n.
&
Caudal Gluteal n.
Flexes hip

Advances and abducts limb

Middle Gluteal m. Gluteal Surface of Ilium
&
Sacroiliac and Sacrosciatic Ligaments
Greater Trochanter of Femur Cranial Gluteal n. Extends hip

Abducts limb

Accessory Gluteal m. Gluteal Surface of Ilium Distal of Greater Trochanter of Femur Cranial Gluteal n. Extends hip

Abducts limb

Deep Gluteal m. Ischial Spine Greater Trochanter of Femur Cranial Gluteal n. Abducts limb
Gemelli m.
(the "twins")
Dorsal Border of Ischium Trochanteric Fossa of Femur Sciatic n.
(Muscular Branches)
Rotates thigh outward
Internal Obturator m. Internal Surface of Ischium and Pubis from Obturator Foramen to the Pelvic Symphysis Trochanteric Fossa of Femur Sciatic n.
(Muscular Branches)
Rotates thigh outward
Quadratus Femoris:
Ventral Surface of Ischium Caudal Surface of Femur
near Third Trochanter
Sciatic n.
(Muscular Branches)
Helps extend hip joint
External Obturator m. Ventral Surface of Pelvis from Obturator Foramen Trochanteric Fossa of Femur Obturator n. Rotates thigh outward

Adducts limb

Biceps femoris m.  
vertebral head Spinous and Transverse Processes of S3-5
&
Sacrosciatic Ligament and Tail Fascia
Patella and Patellar Ligaments (Lat./Med.)
&
Cranial Border of Tibia
&
Calcaneus (via tarsal tendon)
&
Crural Fascia
Caudal Gluteal n.
&
Tibial n.
Extends hip

Abducts limb

Extends stifle

Flexes Stifle (via caudal aspect)

Extends hock

pelvic head Ischial Tuber
Semitendinosus m.  
vertebral head S5 to Cd2
&
Sacrosciatic Ligament and Tail Fascia
Cranial Border of Tibia
&
Calcaneus (via tarsal tendon)
&
Crural Fascia
Caudal Gluteal n.
&
Tibial n.
Extends hip

Adducts and draws back limb

Extends stifle

Extends hock

pelvic head Ventral Aspect of Ischial Tuber
Semimembranosus m.  
vertebral head Cd1
&
Sacrosciatic Ligament
Medial Condyles of Femur and Tibia Caudal Gluteal n.
&
Tibial n.
Extends hip

Adducts and draws back limb

Rotates limb inward

Extends stifle

Extends hock

pelvic head Ventromedial Aspect of Ischial Tuber
Gracilis m. Pelvic Symphysis (via symphysial tendon) Cranial Border of Tibia
&
Medial Patellar Ligament
&
Crural Fascia
Obturator n. Adducts limb

Extends Stifle

Adductor m. Ventral Surface of Pelvis
&
Symphysial Tendon
Medial Epicondyle and Caudal Surface of Femur Obturator n. Adducts limb

Draws limb back

Pectineus m. Pubis
&
Iliopubic Eminence (of other side)
Medial Surface of Femur Obturator n.
&
Femoral n.
Flexes hip

Adducts limb

Sartorius m. Internal Iliac Fascia
&
Insertion Tendon of Psoas Minor
Medial Stifle Femoral n. Flexes hip

Adducts limb

Draws limb back

Quadratus femoris m.  
Rectus femoris m. Shaft of Ilium Tibial Tuberosity
(via intermediate patellar ligament)
Femoral n. Flexes hip

Extends and stabilizes stifle

Vastus lateralis m. Proximolateral Femur
Vastus medialis m. Proximomedial Femur
Vastus intermedius m. Proximodorsal Femur
Popliteus m. Lateral Condyle of Femur Caudomedial Aspect of Femur Tibial n. Flexes stifle
Gatrocnemius m.
includes medial and lateral heads
Medial and Lateral Supracondylar Tuberosities of Femur Calcanean Tuber
(Common Calcanean Tendon)
Tibial n. Flexes stifle

Extends hock

Soleus m. Proximal Fibula Joins Common Calcanean Tendon Tibial n. Could extend hock
(a rudimentary muscle)
Superficial Digital Flexor m. Supracondylar Fossa of Femur Plantar Aspect of Distal End of Proximal Phalanx
&
Proximal Collateral Tubercles of Middle Phalanx
Tibial n. Proximal aspect has role in reciprocal mechanism

Distal aspect supports Metacarpophalangeal and Proximal Interphalangeal Joints
(Fetlock and Pastern)

Deep Digital Flexor m.  
Lateral digital flexor m. Caudal Surface of Tibia Plantar Aspect of Distal Phalanx Tibial n. Extends hock

Flexes digit

Caudal tibial m. Caudal Surface of Tibia
Medial digital flexor m. Lateral Tibial Condyle
Cranial tibial m. Lateral Condyle and Tuberosity of Tibia Tarsus1+2 & 3 and Metatarsal III Peroneal n. Flexes hock
Peroneus tertius m. Lateral Condyle of Femur Tarsal Bones (except Tarsus1+2)
&
Metacarpal III
Peroneal n. Element of reciprocal mechanism
Long Digital Extensor m. Lateral Condyle of Femur Extensor Processes of Distal Phalanx
&
Proximal and Middle Phalanges (Secondarily)
Peroneal n. Flexes hock

Extends digit

Lateral Digital Extensor m. Lateral Collateral Ligament of Stifle
&
Tibial and Fibula
Joins Long Digital Extensor Tendon Peroneal n. Flexes hock

Extends digit

Interosseous Proximocaudal Metacarpal III
&
Palmar Tarsal Ligament
Proximal Sesamoid Bones Lateral Plantar Digital n. Resists overextension of metacarpophalangeal joint
(fetlock)