of abnormal lungs can be extremely difficult in the cow.
The reason for this is that they have a smaller area to auscult
due to the reduced number of ribs and a steeper angle of the
diaphragm. The caudal border is the 11th rib. Note
the area of auscultation that is outlined with tape in the
picture to the left. Caution:
Significant pathological lesions may be present without any
abnormal lung sounds. Observation of rate and
effort is important during auscultation. Cattle normally have a
costoabdominal effort. The normal rate is 12 -36 bpm.