References

 

 
 

References

1.    Morris EH, Seeherman HJ: Clinical evaluation of poor performance in the racehorse: the results of 275 evaluations. Eq Vet J 1991:23(3); 169-174.

2.    Morris EA, Seeherman HJ: Evaluation of upper respiratory tract function during strenuous exercise in racehorses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990; 196:1431-1438.

3.    Morris E: Dynamic evaluation of the upper respiratory tract. Vet Clin N Am 7:2; 891, 403-415.

4.    Parente EJ, Martin BB, Tulleners EP, et al: Upper respiratory dysfunctions in horses during high-speed exercise.  Proc 40th Annu Conv AAEP 1994, 81-82.

5.    Lumsden JM, Stick JA, Caron, JJ, Nickels FA, et.al: Upper airway function in performance horses: Videoendoscopy during high-speed treadmill exercise. Comp Cont Ed 17(9): 1134-1145.

6.    Hackett RP, Ducharme NG, Mitchell L: The role of treadmill endoscopy and diagnosis of dynamic obstruction of the upper airway.  40th Annu Conv Proceedings AAEP 1994, p 83.

7.    Parente EJ, Martin BB: Correlation between standing endoscopic examinations and those made during high-speed exercise in horses: 150 cases. AAEP Proceedings 41; 1995, p 170.

8.    Parente EJ: Treadmill endoscopy. In Equine Endoscopy Second Edition. Traub-Dargatz JL (ed). St Louis, EV Mosby, 1997, pp 106-116.

9.    Reef VB: Electrocardiography and echocardiography in the exercising horse. In Current Therapy in Equine Medicine 4. Robinson NE (ed). Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co., 1997; pp 234-239

10.Feigenbaum H, Echocardiography, 3rd ed; Lea and Febiger, 1981 Philadelphia. pp. 188-329.

11.Reef VB, Echocardiographic examination in the horse: The basics. Comp Cont Edu Pract Vet 1990; 12, 1312-1320.

12.Rakestraw PC, Hackett RP, Ducharme N, Nielan G, et al: Arytenoid cartilage movement in resting and exercising horses. Vet Surg 1991; 20 (2): 122-127.

13.Beard W, Upper respiratory causes of exercise intolerance. Vet Clin North America, Eq Pract 12(3); 1996, 435-455.

14.Kannegeitner NJ, Dore ML: Endoscopy of the upper respiratory tract during treadmill exercise. Aus Eq Vet 12(2) 1994;pp 63-64.

15.Holcomb SJ, Stick JA, Dirksen FJ: Endoscopy of the equine airways. Proceedings 15th ACVIM Forum. 1997, p 271.

16.Ducharme NG: Dynamic pharyngeal collapse. In Robinson NE (ed): Current Therapy in Equine Medicine, ED 3, Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co., 1990, p 283-284.

17.Maxson AD, Parente EJ, Beech J, et al: The effect of high intensity exercise on arterial blood gas tensions and upper airway and cardiac function in clinically normal Quarter Horses and horses heterozygous and homozygous for hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. Am J Vet Res1998;59(5)615-618.

18.King CM, Evans DL, Rose RJ: Cardiac respiratory and metabolic responses to exercise in horses with various abnormalities of the upper respiratory tract. Eq Vet J 1994; 26(3):220-225.

19.Leroux AJ, Schoo HC, Hines MT: Ventricular tachycardia associated with exhaustive exercise in a horse.J Am Vet Med Assoc 1995;207(3):336-337.

20.Mitten LA, Cardiovascular causes of exercise intolerance. Vet Clin North Amer Eq Pract;12(3) 1996, 473-494

21.Reef, VB: In The Horse: Diseases and Clinical Management, First Edition. Kobluk CN, Ames TR, Geor RJ (ed). Philadelphia, W B Saunders, 1995, pp 185-1977.

22.Reef VB: Heart murmurs in horses: determining their significance with echocardiography. Eq Vet J (suppl). 1995; 19:71-80.

23.Keiji K: Cardiopathology of arrhythmias in the horse. In Proceedings 26th AAEP 1980, p 457-468.

24.Mason SJ, Weiss JL, Weisfeldt, et al: Exercise echocardiography: detection of wall motion abnormalities during ischemia. Circulation 1979; 59: 1:50-59.

25.Valberg SJ: Muscular causes of exercise intolerance in horses. Vet Clin N Am Eq Pract 1996; 12:495-515.

26.Snow DH, Valberg SJ: Muscle anatomy, physiology, and adaptations to exercise and training. In Principles and Practice of Equine Sports Medicine, The Athletic Horse. Hodgson DR, Rose RJ (eds). WB Saunders 1994, pp 145-179.

Equipment used

a.  GIF-Q Gastroscope, CLV V 20 light source and CV-100 image processor, Olympus, Columbia, MO.

b.  800 series microphone, Microphone - Audio Technica U.S. Inc., Stow, Ohio and SVO 9500 MDX video recorder, Sony Electronics Medical Division, Montvale, NJ.

c.  SVO 9500 MDX video-recorder, Sony Electronics Medical Division, Montvale, NJ.

d.  According to the criteria established by the American Society of Echocardiography.

e.  Opus One or Impact, Universal Medical Systems, Inc., Bedford Hills, NY.

f.  Hewlett Packard Digital UHF Telemetry Monitoring System, M1403A, Hewlett Packard Co., Andover, MA.

g.  Classic 4000 High Speed Equine Treadmill, Walmanik International Corp., Freedom, PA.