References for Normal Values


  1. Detweiler, D.K.  Regulation of the Heart. In Duke's Physiology of Domestic Animals.  11th Edition.  Edited by M.J. Swenson; W.O. Reece.   Ithaca N.Y., Cornell University Press, 1993.

  2. DiDio, L.J.A.  Myocardial ultrastructure and electrocardiograms of the hummingbird under normal and experimental conditions.  The Anatomical Record, 159: (1976) 335-352.

  3. Fregin et al.  Duration of electrocardiographic complexes and intervals in lead II in Standardbred and Thoroughbred horses.

  4. Hamlin, R.L.; Ridgway, S.H.; Gilmartin, W.G.  Electorcardiogram of pinnipeds.  American Journal of Veterinary Research, 33: (1972) 867-875.

  5. Heaton-Jones, T.G.; King, R.R.  Characterization of the electrocardiogram of the american alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).   Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 25: (1994) 40-47.

  6. Holz, R.M.; Holz, P.  Electorcardiography in anaesthetised red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). 

  7. Szabuniewicz, M.; Clark, D.R.  Analysis of the electrocardiograms of 100 normal goats.  American Journal of Veterinary Research, 28: (1967) 511-516.

  8. Szabuniewicz, M.; McCrady, J.D.  The electrocardiogram of the Japanese (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) quail.  Zbl. Vet. Med., 21: (1974) 198-207.

  9. Tilley, L.P.; Miller, M.S.; Smith, F.W.K.  Canine and Feline Cardiac Arrhythmias.  Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1993.

  10. Zenoble, R.D.; Graham, D.L.  Electrophysiology of the parakeet, parrot and owl.  

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